Western Culture

Learning Materials for Students



History and its Relationship with Culture, Education, Language and Communication


History is related to culture; it is the memory of living yesterdays and the promise of predictable tomorrows. We live and think in the realm of history. We must study history because we are human beings, we possess a memory; we function by using our own experience, as well as experience of others.


History deals with everything that has happened to humans. History deals with people both humanistically and scientifically. History is related to language and communication.


Everyone is a product of his/her society. Every society is a product of its past. To know the past and that of other people is to know yourself. Bertrand Russell, the great English philosopher, wrote:

"History is invaluable in increasing our knowledge of human nature, because it shows how people may be expected to behave in new situations. Many prominent men and women are completely ordinary in character, and only exceptional in their circumstances."


History is also related to cultural values. It can be a cure for prejudice and provincialism. The study of history used to be thought of as training in patriotism and national loyalties. There is nothing wrong with healthy patriotic pride, but there is something pathological about parochialism, self-righteousness and blind nationalism. These types of social diseases have twice led to world wars in the 20th century. Learning that your own national way of doing things is not the only way (and certainly not the norm for other people) and learning that the behavior of other people in other times and places is not particularly bad or unworkable because it is old or foreign is an essential revelation for any person who pretends to be educated.


There is a greater loyalty than national loyalty - a loyalty to mankind, to human improvement, international understanding and general enlightenment. To exploit history as nationalistic propaganda is a form of intellectual prostitution. We will not engage in such illegal activity. History is the collective experience of mankind, and as such it teaches us lessons that may help us avoid in the future some of the mistakes we have made in the past. That requires thinking properly about the past, present and future.

History shares with the other liberating arts, such as literature, philosophy or mathematics, the virtue of being able to train us to think. This does not mean necessarily training to think about particular things, but rather training in the process of thinking in general. A trained mind, one that is flexible and perceptive with respect to whatever new problem confronts it, is the most practical tool imaginable. History is a mind-training discipline and has a practicality that is supreme. No other subject pulls together all of human experience so broadly - and thus teaches synthetic thinking - and no other subject relates the many parts of this experience to each other - and thus teaches analytic thinking.


Today more than ever we will have to use our wits and analytic power, if the human species is to survive. The modern world in which we live is revolutionary. The profound contradictions that we confront everyday are not the result of mere perversity or simple folly. They are due to the tremendous developments in science and technology. These have led to far more rapid and radical change than any previous society has known. Our society has not been prepared to deal with these changes. We suffer from a variety of cultural gaps. We can send a man to the moon, but we cannot eliminate simple poverty, malnutrition and slum housing - not to mention learning to live with our fellow human beings whose skin might have a different color.

Because the paradoxes of our age are so violent, people have been violently oversimplifying its issues. On the one hand, many political and business leaders are still celebrating the triumphs of technology, science and free enterprise as if there were nothing fundamentally wrong with our civilization, and the world depressions and world wars were unfortunate accidents.


Perhaps, you have all heard that famous quotation by the American philosopher George Santayana: Those who do not remember the past are condemned to repeat it.


We could, perhaps, revise that by saying, Those who do not remember the past are condemned. Our only hope of survival as sane human beings in a sane society is to bet on the education history can give us.


Only the arrogant can believe that any one nation has enough wit and virtue to rule the world. Ultimately then the real question is whether the ideal values of Western civilization are more vital than they have appeared to be in recent times. I can only believe that, in spite of all the failures, problems and wars that have troubled this civilization over the centuries, these ideal values deserve to live.

The supreme gift of the West to mankind is that it has promoted the sentiment of equality and realized a measure of actual equality, political, economic, and social. It has thereby laid the only possible basis for a world federation, or "one world" or the "global village" - as current usage will have it. The study of history then may justify itself simply as an act of piety that deepens and widens our aesthetic, spiritual and essentially philosophical sense of continuity and community.


There are many ‘histories’ that people study, e.g. History of Language (e.g., History of English Language, History of French Language, etc.), History of Medicine, History of Art (e.g. History of Western European Art), History of Science, History of Earth, History of Civilization, History of Western Civilization, History of Religion, Religion, History of a Country (e.g., History of Norway, History of Denmark, History of Greece, History of Finland, History of Latvia, etc), etc. All of these histories are valuable.


First, we briefly look through the basic facts of History of Western Civilization in order to better understand present-day Western society. Then we will concentrate on present-day traditions, cultures, languages, lifestyles, etiquette, thinking, as well as political, economic and social values.



A Brief History of Western Civilization


Before we go deeper into the discussions about Western Civilization we must study the basic terms.


Explanation of Basic Terms


Latin words which are commonly used in English

AD – Annum Domino (=the years of God)

BC – Before Christ (=before the birth of Jesus Christ)

i.e. – id est (=that is)

e.g. – exemplae gratia (=beautiful, gracious examples)

etc. – et cetera (=and so on)

NB – Nota Bene (=Remember Well, Note It)



Etymology (=history and development of the word; Greek etumon=’true sense of a word’).



What is Language?

    1. Communication of thoughts and feelings through a system of arbitrary signals, such as voice sounds, gestures, or written symbols.
    2. Such a system including its rules for combining its components, such as words.
    3. Such a system as used by a nation, people, or other distinct community; often contrasted with dialect.
    1. A system of signs, symbols, gestures, or rules used in communicating: the language of algebra.
    2. Computer Science. A system of symbols and rules used for communication with or between computers.
  3. Body language; kinesics.
  4. The special vocabulary and usages of a scientific, professional,
  5. A characteristic style of speech or writing: Shakespearean language.
  6. A particular manner of expression: persuasive language.
  7. The manner or means of communication between living creatures other than humans: the language of dolphins.
  8. Verbal communication as a subject of study.
  9. The wording of a legal document or statute as distinct from the spirit.
  10. Please study the following website about languages: http://anthro.palomar.edu/language/language_2.htm


What is Speech?

    1. The faculty or act of speaking.
    2. The faculty or act of expressing or describing thoughts, feelings, or perceptions by the articulation of words.
  2. Something spoken; an utterance.
  3. Vocal communication; conversation.
    1. A talk or public address: “The best impromptu speeches are the ones written well in advance” (Ruth Gordon).
    2. A printed copy of such an address.
  5. One's habitual manner or style of speaking.
  6. The language or dialect of a nation or region: American speech.
  7. The sounding of a musical instrument.
  8. The study of oral communication, speech sounds, and vocal physiology.


What is Culture?


One way of thinking about culture is to contrast it with nature. Nature refers to what is born and grows organically (from the Latin nascere: to be born); culture refers to what has been grown and groomed (from the Latin colere: to cultivate). There are many different definitions of culture.

    1. The totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought.
    2. These patterns, traits, and products considered as the expression of a particular period, class, community, or population: Edwardian culture; Japanese culture; the culture of poverty.
    3. These patterns, traits, and products considered with respect to a particular category, such as a field, subject, or mode of expression: religious culture in the Middle Ages; musical culture; oral culture.
    4. The predominating attitudes and behavior that characterize the functioning of a group or organization.
  2. Intellectual and artistic activity and the works produced by it.
    1. Development of the intellect through training or education.
    2. Enlightenment resulting from such training or education.
  4. A high degree of taste and refinement formed by aesthetic and intellectual training.
  5. Special training and development: voice culture for singers and actors.
  6. The cultivation of soil; tillage.
  7. The breeding of animals or growing of plants, especially to produce improved stock.
  8. Biology.
    1. The growing of microorganisms, tissue cells, or other living matter in a specially prepared nutrient medium.
    2. Such a growth or colony, as of bacteria.

Different definitions of culture reflect different theories for understanding, or criteria for valuing, human activity.


A 2002 document from the United Nations agency UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation) states that culture is the "set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of society or a social group and that it encompasses, in addition to art and literature, lifestyles, ways of living together, value systems, traditions and beliefs".


In most cases we will keep to the above definition in our discussions of culture.


Please study the following web page about culture:

http://anthro.palomar.edu/culture/default.htm .



What is Civilization?


Civilisation has a variety of meanings related to human society. The term comes from the Latin civis, meaning "citizen" or "townsman."

  1. An advanced state of intellectual, cultural, and material development in human society, marked by progress in the arts and sciences, the extensive use of record-keeping, including writing, and the appearance of complex political and social institutions.
  2. The type of culture and society developed by a particular nation or region or in a particular epoch:  the civilization of ancient Rome.
  3. The act or process of civilizing or reaching a civilized state.
  4. Cultural or intellectual refinement; good taste.
  5. Modern society with its conveniences: returned to civilization after camping in the mountains.

1. In a technical sense, a civilization is a complex society in which many of the people live in cities and get their food from agriculture, as distinguished from band and tribal societies in which people live in small settlements or nomadic groups and make their subsistence by hunting, or working small horticultural gardens. When used in this sense, civilization is an exclusive term, applied to some human groups and not others.

2. In a broader sense, civilization often can refer to any distinct society, whether complex and city-dwelling, or simple and tribal. This definition is often perceived as less exclusive and ethnocentric than the first. In this sense civilization is nearly synonymous with culture.

3. Civilization can sometimes refer to human society as a whole, as in "A nuclear war would wipe out Civilization" or "I'm glad to be safely back in Civilization after being lost in the wilderness for 3 weeks." Additionally, it is used in this sense to refer to the potential global civilization.

4. Civilization can also mean a standard of behavior, similar to etiquette. "Civilized" behavior is contrasted with "barbaric" or crude behavior. In this sense, civilization implies sophistication and refinement.

5. Another use of civilization combines the first and fourth meanings of the word, implying that a complex society is naturally superior to less complex societies. This point of view is associated with racism and imperialism; powerful societies have often believed it was their right to "civilize," or culturally dominate, weaker ones ("barbarians"). Please find more information online about barbarians.



What Makes a Civilization?


In the technical sense, a civilization is a complex society. It is distinguished from simpler societies but is not considered superior to them. Everyone lives in a society and a culture, but not everyone lives in a civilization. In general, civilizations share the following traits:

  • Intensive agricultural techniques, such as the use of animal power, crop rotation, and irrigation. This enables farmers to produce a surplus of food that will not be needed for their own subsistence.
  • A significant portion of the population that does not devote most of its time to producing food. They can go into other occupations and trade for the food they need. This is called "specialization of labor." It is possible because of the food surplus described above.
  • The gathering of these non-food producers into permanent settlements, called cities.
  • A social hierarchy. This can be a clan rules the people; or a state society, in which the ruling class is supported by a government or bureaucracy. Political power is concentrated in the cities.
  • The establishment of complex, formal social institutions such as organized religion and education, as opposed to the less formal traditions of other societies.
  • Development of complex forms of economic exchange. This includes the expansion of trade and may lead to the creation of money and markets.
  • The accumulation of more material possessions than in simpler societies.
  • Development of new technologies by people who are not busy producing food. In many early civilizations, metallurgy was an important advancement.
  • Advanced development of the arts by those who don't have to farm for a living. This can include writing.


By this definition, some societies, like China, are clearly civilizations, whereas others like the Bushmen clearly are not. However, the distinction is not always clear. In the Pacific Northwest, for example, an abundant supply of fish guaranteed that the people had a surplus of food without any agriculture. The people established permanent settlements, a social hierarchy, material wealth, and advanced artwork, all without the development of intensive agriculture. Today, many tribal societies live inside states and under their laws. The political structures of civilization have been superimposed on their way of life, so they too occupy a middle ground between tribal and civilized.

The first civilization was that of the Sumerians in an ancient country of southern Mesopotamia in present-day southern Iraq. Archaeological evidence dates the beginnings of Sumer to the fifth millennium B.C. By 3000 a flourishing civilization existed, which gradually exerted power over the surrounding area who became an urban society around 3500 BC.



Civilization as a Cultural Identity


"Civilization" can also describe the culture of a complex society, not just the society itself. Every society, civilization or not, has a specific set of ideas and customs, and a certain set of items and arts, that make it unique. Civilizations have even more intricate cultures, including literature, professional art, architecture, organized religion, and complex customs associated with the elite. The intricate culture associated with civilization has a tendency to spread to and influence other cultures, sometimes assimilating them into the civilization. A classic example is Chinese civilization and its influence on Korea, Japan, Tibet, and so forth. China is the world's oldest continuous civilization, with a history characterized by repeated divisions and reunifications amid alternating periods of peace and war.

So many civilizations are actually large cultural spheres containing many nations and regions. The civilization in which someone lives is that person's broadest cultural identity. A female of African descent living in the United States has many roles that she identifies with. However, she is above all a member of "Western civilization." In the same way, a male of Kurdish ancestry living in Syria is above all a member of "Islamic civilization."




The history of Western Civilization started in Europe





In Greek mythology there are two primary legends regarding Europa, the woman for whom the continent of Europe is named. In one, she is seduced by the god Zeus in the form of a bull who takes her to Crete; in the other, she is kidnapped by Minoans, who also take her to Crete.


According to the principal figure of ancient Greek literature; the first poet Homer, Europa was a Phoenician princess (Phoenicia is present-day Syria and Lebanon ) who was abducted by a bull-shaped Zeus and taken to the island of Crete, an island of southeast Greece in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Its Minoan civilization, centered at the city of Knossos on the northern coast, was one of the earliest in the world and reached the height of its wealth and power. In 1600 B.C. Europa gave birth to Minos (a king of Crete - the son of Zeus and Europa).


For Homer, Europa was a mythological queen of Crete, not a geographical designation. Later Europa stood for mainland Greece and by 500 BC its meaning was extended to lands to the north. Homer is the man who, according to legend, wrote the two great epics of Greek history: the Iliad (the tale of the Trojan War) and the Odyssey (about the travels of Odysseus). Both books are considered landmarks in human literature and Homer is therefore often cited as the starting point of Western literary and historical tradition. The details of Homer's life are a mystery; some scholars believe that no such man ever existed, and that the works credited to him were actually told and gathered by many people over many centuries. Other stories give various birthplaces and ages for Homer and suggest he was a wandering poet or minstrel. Homer is usually said to have been blind, a point on which nearly all the legends agree.


By 1250 B.C. the Phoenicians were well established as the navigators and traders of the Mediterranean world .Their greatest contribution to Western civilization, however, was the development of a standardized phonetic alphabet, which was a great improvement over the more ambiguous cuneiform and hieroglyphic. The Phoenician alphabet served as a basis for the Greek alphabet and was a key factor in the development of Greek literature. They developed an alphabet that was eventually adapted by the Greeks and Romans into the alphabet used in writing English. In the Phoenicians' alphabet, the marks stand for individual sounds rather than for whole words or syllables, as in Egyptian hieroglyphics (a system of writing in which pictorial symbols are used to represent meaning or sounds or a combination of meaning and sound).


The term Europe is generally derived from Greek words meaning ‘broad’ (=eurys) and ‘face’ (=ops). Some linguists, however, see here Jewish or Arabic origin, pointing to the Semitic word ereb which means "sunset". From a Middle Eastern viewpoint, the sun sets over Europe: the lands to the west.

In every aspect, Europa cannot be separated from the sacred bull, which had been worshipped in Europa's homeland. The bull and the cow were sacred in Old Europe too and cattle myths survived in Irish Gaelic myth: In some Christian religions Nativity scenes are assembled at Christmas time (Christian feast commemorating the birth of Jesus). Most of them show a bull or an ox near baby Jesus [Jesus was born: 5 B.C., birthplace: Bethlehem, Judea; died: 30 A.D. (crucifixion)], lying in a manger. Traditional songs of Christmas often tell of the bull and the donkey warming the infant with their breath. A nativity scene (usually capitalized if referring to the birth of Jesus) also called a "manger" in French generally refers to any depiction of the birth or birthplace of Jesus. Nativity scenes, in two dimensions (drawings, paintings, icons, etc.) or three (sculpture or other three-dimensional crafts), usually show Jesus in a manger, Joseph, and Mary in a barn (or a cave) intended for the housing of animals. A mule and an ox surround them.



Brief History of Europe


Europe has a long history of cultural and economic achievement, starting as far back as the Paleolithic. The three-age system is an international system of classifying human prehistory into three consecutive time periods, named for their respective predominant tool-making technologies. It was introduced by the famous Danish archaeologist Christian Jurgensen Thomsen in the 1820s in order to classify artifacts in the collection which later became The National Museum of Denmark:

  • The Stone Age
  • The Bronze Age
  • The Iron Age


1. Stone Age


Paleolithic period or Old Stone Age [in Ancient Greek palai= ‘long ago’, lithos=’stone’, or Old Stone Age] was the earliest period of human development and the longest phase of mankind's history. In fact, it is the cultural period of the Stone Age beginning with the earliest chipped stone tools, about 750,000 years ago, until the beginning of the Mesolithic Age, about 15,000 years ago. By far the most outstanding feature of the Paleolithic period was the evolution of the human species from an apelike creature, or near human, to true Homo sapiens. This development was exceedingly slow and continued through the three successive divisions of the period, the Lower, Middle, and Upper Paleolithic. The most abundant remains of Paleolithic cultures are a variety of stone tools whose distinct characteristics provide the basis for a system of classification containing several tool making traditions or industries.


Mesolithic period or Middle Stone Age [Greek mesos=’middle’, or Middle Stone Age] period in human development between the end of the Paleolithic and the beginning of the Neolithic Period. It began with the end of the last glacial period over 10,000 years ago and evolved into the Neolithic period; this change involved the gradual domestication of plants and animals and the formation of settled communities at various times and places. While Mesolithic cultures lasted in Europe until almost 3000 B.C., Neolithic communities developed in the Middle East between 9000 and 6000 B.C. Mesolithic cultures represent a wide variety of hunting, fishing, and food gathering techniques. This variety may be the result of adaptations to changed ecological conditions associated with the retreat of glaciers, the growth of forests in Europe and deserts in N Africa, and the disappearance of the large game of the Ice Age. Characteristic of the period were hunting and fishing settlements along rivers and on lake shores, where fish and mollusks were abundant. Microliths, the typical stone implements of the Mesolithic period, are smaller and more delicate than those of the late Paleolithic period. Pottery and the use of the bow developed, although their presence in Mesolithic cultures may only indicate contact with early Neolithic peoples. The Azilian culture, which was centered in the Pyrenees region but spread to Switzerland, Belgium, and Scotland, was one of the earliest representatives of Mesolithic culture in Europe. The Azilian was followed by the Tardenoisian culture, which covered much of Europe; most of these settlements are found on dunes or sandy areas. The Maglemosian, named for a site in Denmark, is found in the Baltic region and N England. It occurs in the middle of the Mesolithic period. It is there that hafted axes, an improvement over the Paleolithic hand axe, and bone tools are found. The Ertebolle culture, also named for a site in Denmark, spans most of the late Mesolithic. It is also known as the kitchen-midden culture for the large deposits of mollusk shells found around the settlements. Other late Mesolithic cultures are the Campignian and Asturian, both of which may have had Neolithic contacts. The Mesolithic period in other areas is represented by the Natufian in the Middle East, the Badarian and Gerzean in Egypt, and the Capsian in N Africa. The Natufian culture provides the earliest evidence of an evolution from a Mesolithic to a Neolithic way of life.


Neolithic period or New Stone Age [Greek neos=’new’, lithos=’stone’, or "New Stone Age"]. The term neolithic is used, especially in archaeology and anthropology, to designate a stage of cultural evolution or technological development characterized by the use of stone tools, the existence of settled villages largely dependent on domesticated plants and animals, and the presence of such crafts as pottery and weaving. The time period and cultural content indicated by the term varies with the geographic location of the culture considered and with the particular criteria used by the individual scientist. The domestication of plants and animals usually distinguishes Neolithic culture from earlier Paleolithic or Mesolithic hunting, fishing, and food-gathering cultures. The Mesolithic period in several areas shows a gradual transition from a food-collecting to a food-producing culture. The termination of the Neolithic period is marked by such innovations as the rise of urban civilization or the introduction of metal tools or writing. Again, the criteria vary with each case. The earliest known development of Neolithic culture was in SW Asia between 8000 B.C. and 6000 B.C. There the domestication of plants and animals was probably begun by the Mesolithic Natufian peoples, leading to the establishment of settled villages based on the cultivation of cereals, including wheat, barley, and millet, and the raising of cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs. In the Tigris and Euphrates river valleys, the Neolithic culture of the Middle East developed into the urban civilizations of the Bronze Age by 3500 B.C. Between 6000 B.C. and 2000 B.C. Neolithic culture spread through Europe, the Nile valley (Egypt), the Indus valley (India), and the Huang He valley (N China). The formation of Neolithic cultures throughout the Old World (i.e. Europe) resulted from a combination of local cultural developments with innovations diffused from the Middle East. In SE Asia, a distinct type of Neolithic culture involving rice cultivation developed, perhaps independently, before 2000 B.C. In the New World, the domestication of plants and animals occurred independently of Old World developments. By 1500 B.C., Neolithic cultures based on the cultivation of corn, beans, squash, and other plants were present in Mexico and South America, leading to the rise of the Inca and Aztec civilizations and spreading to other parts of the Americas by the time of European contact. The term Neolithic has also been used in anthropology to designate cultures of more contemporary primitive, independent farming communities. The Neolithic, is traditionally the last part of the Stone Age. The Stone Age ended in Europe by about 4000 BC.

Today ‘stone age’ is sometimes used as slang. It can mean an extremely backward or primitive era or state: back in the Stone Age of television broadcasting.



2. Bronze Age


The Bronze Age is a period in a civilization’s development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. It was a period of history from roughly 4000 b.c. to the onset of the Iron Age. During the Bronze Age, people learned to make bronze tools. In the Bronze Age in Mesopotamia, the wheel and the ox-drawn plow were in use. Mesopotamia (Greek=’between rivers’), ancient territory about the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, included in modern Iraq. The region extends from the Persian Gulf north to the mountains of Armenia and from the Zagros and Kurdish mountains on the east to the Syrian Desert. From the mountainous north, Mesopotamia slopes down through grassy steppes to a central alluvial plain, which was once rendered exceedingly fertile by a network of canals. The south was long thought to be the cradle of civilization until earlier settlements (which probably date from about 7000 B.C.) were found in N Mesopotamia; Jarmo, the earliest of these, was superseded by a succession of cultures: Tell Hassuna, Samarra, and Tell Halaf. Tell Halaf, the most advanced of these early cultures, is famous for Halaf ware, the finest prehistoric pottery in Mesopotamia. While these advances were being made in the north, civilization was just beginning in the south, particularly at Eridu. The Al Ubaid culture that followed flourished in both N and S Mesopotamia. This glory was destroyed when the Mongols under Hulagu Khan devastated the area in 1258, destroying the ancient irrigation system. In the centuries following, Mesopotamia never regained its former prominence. Writings from Mesopotamia (Uruk, modern Warka) are the earliest written work in the world, giving Mesopotamia the reputation of being the Cradle of Civilization. The term ‘Cradle of Civilization’ is a title claimed by many regions of the world, but is most often applied to the ancient city states of Mesopotamia.



3. Iron Age


The Iron Age was the period in the development of industry that began with the general use of iron and continued into modern times. In was preceded by the Bronze Age. It did not begin in the Americas until the coming of the Europeans. Iron beads were worn in Egypt as early as 4000 B.C., but these were of meteoric iron, evidently shaped by the rubbing process used in shaping implements of stone. The oldest known article of iron shaped by hammering is a dagger found in Egypt that was made before 1350 B.C. The time of the Iron Age varies from 3000 BC-1000 AD.



Home Assignment

1.       Have you ever wondered what makes a good civilization? Working as individuals or in small groups, research the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt and China. Based on what you learn, construct a civilization or culture for the year 3000 that you believe will have the criteria to last hundreds of years.

2.       As you research the ancient cultures of Mesopotamia, Egypt and China, look at the things that make a good civilization. What types of criteria are important for any civilization to be successful? Criteria you might consider may come from the areas of geography, education, government, lifestyle, the arts and architecture, technology, employment and the economy, communication, and transportation.

3.       Please discuss the following aspects of civilization.

  1. What are the religious beliefs and customs of the people?*
  2. What type of government will your civilization have?*
  3. Name an important  figure (person) from your civilization and describe his/her influence on the civilization.*
  4. Create a list of achievements of your civilization.*
  5. Will there be formal education?
  6. What types of jobs will be available for your people?
  7. Will people use money?
  8. What types of things have value?
  9. What is the architecture like?
  10. Will people trade?
  11. How will people communicate?
  12. What about transportation?
  13. How do the sick receive treatment?
  14. What is the role of females, males and children in your society?
  15. What about arts and entertainment?
  16. How do people dress?
  17. What other things do you think are important to consider?




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